The oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L) seed production and regeneration in northern forests of Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Azad University

2 Forests, Rangelands and Watershed Management Organization

3 forestry and forest economic dept. unversity of Tehran.


Seed performs a significant role as the most influential factor in the transfer of tree species heritability and forest sustainability. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of altitude from sea level on seed production and regeneration of oriental beech in managed forests. For this purpose, 50 paired sample plots with 2 × 2 m at 1100, 1600 and 2000 m.a.s.l were established. For different experiments were transferred the collected seeds to the seed laboratory. The germinated seeds counted at each sample plot on spring in order to regeneration survey. According to the obtained results, 1600 meters consist of the highest seed, 2000 meters encompass the highest regeneration and 1600 include the un-healthiest seeds. In addition, the maximum seed eaten by insects related to the height of 1600 m. furthermore, 1000 seed weight at the 1100, 1600 and 2000 m were determined to be 207.684, 244.144 and 304.237 grams, respectively. Seed weight appears to be lower in frequently seed years than in regular years. According to the results, the best height for producing and collecting beech seed is at 2000 m.a.s.l. Therefore, the establishment of a seed production station as well as a temporary nursery at this altitude can create a suitable ground for seed reproduction and production in areas of equal height and homogeneity.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 16 February 2022
  • Receive Date: 11 May 2021
  • Revise Date: 16 August 2021
  • Accept Date: 28 November 2021
  • First Publish Date: 16 February 2022