Arbuscular mycorrhizas are able to reduce the adverse effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on crops. To investigate the effect of inoculation with Glomus mosseae on physiological characteristics of two rice cultivars under water deficit conditions, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design in the greenhouse. Irrigation conditions included flooding, stop irrigation up to 70% and 50% of field capacity. In general, in both groups of plants, inoculated and control plants (non-inoculated), increased levels of phenol, tannin, glycine and betaine, as well as polyphenol oxidase and guaiacol peroxidase enzymes were observed under water deficit conditions. However, the change amount of each trait in inoculated plants was significantly higher than the non-inoculated plants. In case of stopped irrigation up to 70% of field capacity, the amount of proline, antioxidant enzymes in Nemat cultivar was higher than Tarom Hashemi, while Glycine betaine, tannin and phenol content was higher in Tarom Hashemi than Nemat cultivar. In case of stopped irrigation up to 50% of field capacity, the amount of phenol, tannin, glycine and betaine as well as antioxidant enzymes in Nemat cultivar was higher than Tarom Hashemi, which can be a reason for different effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on the response of rice cultivars to water deficit conditions. Based on the results, it seems that inoculation of rice plant with mycorrhizal fungus can play a role in reducing the adverse effects of water deficit in case of water shortage conditions during the critical stages of plant growth.