Improving seed germination, in vitro organogenesis and regeneration of Plantago major medicinal plant

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

2 Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

3 Zanjan Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran


The seed germination of Plantago major requires pre-treatment in the off-season. Thus, the effect of gibberellic acid, potassium nitrate, cold, daylight and different Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) salt concentrations on the germination of seeds were studied. The modified Timson index was applied to calculate the germination rate.
Effect of different concentrations of 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP) or Thidiazuron (TDZ) in combination with α-Naphtalen acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was studied for callus induction and regeneration of various explants.
The results showed that cold, daylight and full salt MS medium are more suitable for high germination of P. major. The highest percentage of callus formation (100%) was observed in the most of the explants. The highest regeneration frequency (100%) was observed in leaf explant in MS medium containing 1:0.5; 1.5:1; 1.5:2 and 2: 1 mg.L-1 TDZ: IBA, as well as, 2:0.5 mg.L-1 BAP: NAA in stem explant and in root explant at concentration of 1.5 mg.L-1 BAP, 1.5:0.2; 2:0.2 and 3:0.2 mg.L-1 TDZ: NAA and 2:1; 2:2; 3:1; 3:2 mg.L-1 TDZ: IBA. 41.67 shoot number obtained with 1: 2 mg.L-1 TDZ: IBA in leaf explants, as well as, 27 shoot number in 1.5: 1 mg.L-1 TDZ: IBA and 20 shoot number in 2:0.2 mg.L-1 TDZ: NAA were obtained in shoot and root explants, respectively. For root induction, regenerated shoots were transferred into MS medium supplementation with 0.5 mg.L-1 IBA. The survival rate of plantlets was 80% and they were acclimatized in the greenhouse.


Main Subjects

Volume 35, Issue 1
April 2022
Pages 189-205
  • Receive Date: 02 March 2020
  • Revise Date: 26 October 2020
  • Accept Date: 14 January 2021
  • First Publish Date: 03 February 2021